Shaping of individual Decision-Making Strategies : influence of the living environment.
Inter-Individual Differences in Cognitive Tasks: Focusing on the Shaping of Decision-Making Strategies In this review, we discuss how individual cognitive strategies emerge in mice in decision-making tasks, how these strategies develop over time, and what factors influence them. Thanks to a gambling task that we developed, we were able to show that cognitive diversity can be demonstrated in inbred mice: about 30% of individuals develop risk avoidance strategies while 20 to 25% take more risk than the majority of the group. These strategies are accompanied by the mobilization of distinct brain networks, mainly prefrontal and striatal, as well as different endogenous levels of prefrontal monoamines. Here, we review three ecological ways to shape these cognitive strategies: sleep deprivation, exposure to sugar or artificial sweeteners, and exposure to stimulating environments. This review highlights that the cerebral capacities allowing to elaborate flexible decisions, adapted to the context, develop thanks to the mobilization of a cerebral network whose organization can be strongly influenced, even in adult and healthy individuals, by simply playing on living conditions. We also highlight new avenues for the identification of traits of vulnerability to adverse events, before the emergence of mental pathologies.
Inter-Individual Differences in Cognitive Tasks: Focusing on the Shaping of Decision-Making Strategies. Elsa Pittaras, Héloïse Hamelin, Sylvie Granon.