Brain states, such as wake, sleep, or different depths of anesthesia are usually assessed using electrophysiological techniques, such as the local field potential (LFP) or the electroencephalogram (EEG), which are ideal signals for detecting activity patterns such as asynchronous or oscillatory activities. However, it is technically challenging to have these types of measures during calcium imaging recordings such as two-photon or wide-field techniques.
Here, using simultaneous two-photon and LFP measurements, we demonstrate that despite the slower dynamics of the calcium signal, there is a high correlation between the LFP and two-photon signals taken from the neuropil outside neuronal somata. Moreover, we find the calcium signal to be systematically delayed from the LFP signal, and we use a model to show that the delay between the two signals is due to the physical distance between the recording sites. These results suggest that calcium signals alone can be used to detect activity patterns such as slow oscillations and ultimately assess the brain state and level of anesthesia.
Assessing brain state and anesthesia level with two-photon calcium signals. Núria Tort-Colet, Francesco Resta, Elena Montagni, Francesco Pavone, Anna Letizia Allegra Mascaro and Alain Destexhe.